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GIMPS has discovered a new largest known prime number: 2^{82589933}1 (24,862,048 digits) Euler is credited for finding 59^{4} + 158^{4} = 133^{4} + 134^{4}. The smallest prime in the Pythagorean triangles (59, 1740, 1741) and (61, 1860, 1861), where each right triangle has two prime sides and the smallest pair of primes (59 and 61) are twin primes. [Hess and Palos] 59!  58! + 57!  56! + 55!  54! + ... + 1! is prime. [Keller] The least irregular prime of the form 4n + 3. Interstate 59 stretches from Slidell, Louisiana to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Only 59% of the Moon's surface is directly visible from the Earth. [McWhirter] The smallest "Cypher prime" in the KJV Bible. It can be deciphered in the shortest verse (John 11:35). [Bulmer] The first 59 digits of 58^{57} form a prime. [Kulsha] Up to 59 moves are required in Rook and Bishop versus Rook endgame positions that have a forced win. [Speelman] The largest recorded wave in the Atlantic was 59 feet. [Numberland] One day on Mercury lasts about 59 Earth days. [Jolly] Annika Sorenstam was the first woman golfer to shoot 59 in LPGA competition. [Sturgill] 17 + 19 + 23 = 59. [La Haye] 59 and its reversal (95) begin fewer fourdigit prime numbers (seven) than any other twodigit number. 59 divides 616161... 61 (repeated 29*n times, n integer), but 61 divides 595959... 59 (repeated 30*n times, n integer). Note that 29 and 30 are consecutive numbers and also that 59 and 61 are consecutive primes. [Capelle] There are exactly 59 stellations of the regular icosahedron. The Bell XP59 Airacomet was America's first jetpropelled airplane. The Whale Shark holds the title of largest known fish, with the record being a 59footer captured off the coast of Thailand. The Contest Center is located at 59 DeGarmo Hills Road in Wappingers Falls, NY. 59^12 reversed is a prime with prime digital sum. [Patterson] The center prime number in a 3by3 prime magic square that has the smallest possible magic constant. A discovery attributed to Rudolf Ondrejka. The digits 1 through 59 in the Babylonian sexagesimal numeral system were not distinct symbols. [Heeren] Thomas Alva Edison's first Electric Power Plant in New York City supplied 59 customers within a one square mile area. [McAlee] 59 is the smallest number which when divided by 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, leaves remainders of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. [Astle] The highest temperature ever recorded in Antarctica was 59 degrees Fahrenheit (Vanda Station on January 5, 1974). 59 is the smallest odd prime p such that prime(p) divides 2*3*5*7*11*...*p + 1. [McAlee] 59 inches equals 1 yard, 1 foot, and 11 inches. [McAlee] The shortestlived vertebrate is the coralreef pygmy goby (Eviota sigillata), with an average lifespan of, at most, 59 days. The sum of the reversals of the first twodigit primes up to 59 is the beast number (666). [Silva] Euler found 59 pairs of amicable numbers. The number of righttruncatable primes containing at least a digit 9. Note that 59 is a righttruncatable prime containing a digit 9. [Capelle] After Governor Rod Blagojevich tried to sell the U.S. Senate seat that Barach Obama vacated, the 59member Illinois Senate voted unanimously to remove him from office. The number of times the minute and second hands on a clock are aligned in one hour. [Fellows] 59 is the only known mutidigit number n (up to 6000) such that sigma(n^n) + n is prime. The prime related to the next such number (if it exists) has more than 22500 digits. [Firoozbakht] (59^{59} + 2^{59})/(59 + 2) is prime. [Poo Sung] 59 = 5*9 + (5*9). It is probably the only multidigit number with this property. [Firoozbakht] The only twodigit prime whose reversal, sum, and difference of the digits are semiprimes. [Silva] e^(*sqrt(59)) is a nearinteger. Note that it is approximately one tenth of the total number of stars in our galaxy. [Jevtic] Concatenate the number of letters in the two words of this message: MERRY CHRISTMAS. [Green] Choose two 2digit numbers of the form n and n+4 from different decades (for our purpose two 2digit numbers are from different decades if their leftmost digits are not equal). Now reverse the digits of these two numbers and subtract the smaller from the larger. The result is always 59. Examples: 29 and 33 becomes 92  33 = 59, 57 and 61 becomes 75  16 = 59. [Green] The number of crystallographic space lattices (or 3dimensional space groups) that are orthorhombic. [Beedassy] The smallest prime p such that (p, p + 2) and ((p), (p) + 2) both form twin prime pairs. [Beedassy] Smallest number to be both an irregular prime (2nd) and safe prime (6th). Yet it is the largest number to be both a supersingular prime (5+9th) and a Pillai prime (3rd). [Post] "The Black '59" is a short story written by Bill Mumy (known primarily as Will Robinson in the 1960's CBS scifi television series Lost in Space). 59 is the smallest prime you can express by using the digits 123456789 in order, and the operators + and * between any digits. For example, 1*2*3*4+5+6+7+8+9 = 59. Can you find another way to express it with the same rules? [Ward] Minimal number of reciprocals of primes required for their sum to exceed 2. [Schiffman] Mitt Romney had a 59point economic plan. The RMS Titanic was destined for White Star pier 59 in New York City when she sank. 59 (FIFTY NINE) is the only prime number whose name has three letters of the alphabet (E,T,Y) appearing once and three other letters (F,I,N) appearing twice. [Keith] The number of terms involved in the expression for the discriminant Δ of a general quintic (degree five) polynomial. [Beedassy] Marin Mersenne lived to be 59. Maximum water retention of an associative magic square of order 8. [Knecht] 2^59*(59!)1 is the largest "almost evenian prime" less than a googol. ("An almost evenian number" is a number that can be represented as the product of first n positive even numbers minus 1 and is given by the form 2^n*n!1, where n is the number of even numbers), (see PC97). [Loungrides] Norman Manley, of California, holds the record for most hole in ones with 59. [Camper] The sum of the first 59 Cyclops primes is divisible by 59. Note that 588407/59 is also prime. [Gaydos] For consecutive primes 29 and 31, 29*31 (mod 29+31) = 59 and 31*37 (mod 31+37) = 59, which is the first time the remainder appears consecutively. Can it appear more than twice for three other consecutive primes? [Bergot] 2^59 (576460752303423488) is the smallest power of two with no unique digits. Each of its digits appears at least twice. [Gaydos] The sum of the first 59 Fibonacci numbers (2504730781960) is the smallest pandigital sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers. [Gaydos] 59 divides the number of seriesreduced trees with 59 nodes. This sequence begins 1, 3, 10, 24, 59, ... . [Honaker]
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